“HDACi” Histine Deacetylase inhibitors (HDAC inhibitors, HDI) are a class of compounds that interfere with the general function of the cell’s DNA in expression and repression of gene. To carry out gene expression, a cell must control the coiling and uncoiling of DNA around histones. This is accomplished with the assistance of histone acetylases (HAT) and histone deacetylases (HDAC).
“T Lymphocytes” T cells or T lymphocytes belong to a group of white blood cells known as lymphocytes, and play a central role in cell-mediated immunity. They are called T cells because they mature in the thymus
“MHC 1” MHC class I molecules are one of two primary classes of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules (the other one being MHC class II) and are found on every nucleated cell of the body. Their function is to display fragments of proteins from within the cell to T cells; healthy cells will be ignored, while cells containing foreign proteins such as mutated proteins or viral proteins for example will be attacked by the immune system.
“Metastatic”, Metastasis, or metastatic disease (sometimes abbreviated mets), is the spread of a disease from one organ or part to another non-adjacent organ or part.
“Immunosurveillance” Lymphocytes act as sentinels in recognizing and eliminating continuously arising, nascent transformed cells. Cancer immunosurveillance appears to be an important host protection process that inhibits carcinogenesis and maintains regular cellular homeostasis
“TAP” Transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP) is a member of the ATP-binding-cassette transporter family that are composed of 6-8 transmembrane fragment and two ATP binding sites. It delivers cytosolic peptides into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), where they bind to nascent MHC class I molecules. The TAP structure is formed of two proteins: TAP-1 and TAP-2, which have three to four hydrophobic region and one ATP-binding region each. They assemble into a heterodimer, which results in multiple domain transporter.
“Calcium Channel Blocker” A calcium channel blocker (CCB) is a chemical that disrupts the movement of calcium (Ca2+) through calcium channels. CCB drugs devised to target neurons are used as antiepileptics. However, the most widespread clinical usage of calcium channel blockers is to decrease blood pressure in patients with hypertension.
“Cav1” Cav1 is a calcium channel which displays selective permeability to calcium ions. It is sometimes synonymous as voltage-dependent calcium channel. Cav1.1 is the name for a specific type of Calcium channels
“Antibody” An antibody (Ab), also known as an immunoglobulin (Ig), is a large 150 kDa Y shaped protein produced by B-cells that is used by the immune system to identify and neutralize foreign objects such as bacteria and viruses. The antibody recognizes a unique part of the foreign target, called an antigen.
“Aptamer” Aptamers are oligonucleic acid or peptide molecules that bind to a specific target molecule. Nucleic acid aptamers are nucleic acid species that have been engineered through repeated rounds of in vitro selection or equivalently, SELEX (systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment) to bind to various molecular targets such as small molecules, proteins, nucleic acids, and even cells, tissues and organisms. Aptamers are useful in biotechnological and therapeutic applications as they offer molecular recognition properties that rival that of the commonly used biomolecule, antibodies. In addition to their discriminate recognition, aptamers offer advantages over antibodies as they can be engineered completely in a test tube, are readily produced by chemical synthesis, possess desirable storage properties, and elicit little or no immunogenicity in therapeutic applications.
“Atransferrinemia” Atransferrinemia, also called familial hypotransferrinemia, is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder in which there is an absence of transferrin, a plasmaprotein that transports iron through the blood. Atransferrinemia is extremely rare, with only eight cases documented worldwide.
“Peptide” Peptides are short polymers of amino acid monomers linked by peptide bonds, the covalent chemical bonds formed between two molecules when the carboxyl group of one molecule reacts with the amino group of the other molecule. Peptides are distinguished from proteins on the basis of size, typically containing fewer than 50 monomer units.
“α1 subunit” a1 and a2 subunit are parts or subunits of a protein such as a calcium channel Cav1
“ectodomain” An ectodomain is the domain of a membrane protein that extends into the extracellular space (the space outside a cell).
“CD74” MHC class II histocompatibility antigen gamma chain associated invariant chain or CD74 (Cluster of Differentiation 74) is a protein. The invariant chain (Abbreviated Ii) is a polypeptide involved in the formation and transport of MHC class II protein. The cell surface form of the invariant chain is known as CD74.
“Endolysosomal” Proteins internalized, endocytosed in cells are first going in a vesicle, which becomes an endosome. The lysosomal compartment follows this endosomal compartment. The endolysosomal compartment is an intermediate compartment between the endosome and the lysosome.
“exogenous peptides” Exogenous peptides are generated after endocytosis of proteins. These proteins have been endocytosed, taken up by specialized antigen presenting cells to present peptides derived from these proteins coming from outside the cells. The peptides are presented on MHC class II molecules.
“haematopoietic cell” Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are multipotent stem cells that give rise to all the blood cell types from the myeloid monocytes and macrophages, neutrophils, basophils, eosinophils, erythrocytes, megakaryocytes/platelets, dendritic cells), and lymphoid lineages (T-cells, B-cells, NK-cells). HSCs are found in the bone marrow of adults; within femurs, pelvis, ribs, sternum, and other bones.
“immunosuppressant” An immunosuppressant is any substance that performs immunosuppression of the immune system. They may be either exogenous, as immunosuppressive drugs, or endogenous, as,
e. g., testosterone. When the immune system function is suppressed, there is an increased susceptibility to infectious diseases and cancers.
“Autoimmune” Autoimmunity is the failure of an organism in recognizing its own constituent parts as self, which allows an immune response against its own cells and tissues. Any disease that results from such an aberrant immune response is termed an autoimmune disease.
“NSAID” Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, usually abbreviated to NSAIDs—but also referred to as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents/analgesics(NSAIAs) or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medicines (NSAIMs)—are drugs that provide analgesic and antipyretic (fever-reducing) effects, and, in higher doses, anti-inflammatory effects
“DMARD” Disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) is a category of otherwise unrelated drugs defined by their use in rheumatoid arthritis to slow down disease progression. The term is often used in contrast to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (which refers to agents that treat the inflammation but not the underlying cause) and steroids (which blunt the immune response but are insufficient to slow down the progression of the disease).
“Endosome” membrane-bound compartment inside cells.
“Endothelial cells” Cells that line the interior surface of blood vessels, forming an interface between circulating blood in the lumen (inner space, lining or cavity) and the rest of the vessel wall
“Enzyme” are proteins that catalyze (i.e. accelerate) chemical reactions
“Monoclonal antibody” antibodies that are identical because they are produced by one type of immune cell that are all clones of a single parent cell; given (almost) any substance, it is possible to create monoclonal antibodies that specifically bind to that substance; they can then serve to detect or purify that substance
“mRNA” Messenger Ribonucleic Acid (mRNA) is a molecule of RNA encoding a chemical “blueprint” for a protein product; mRNA is transcribed from a DNA template, and carries coding information to the sites of protein synthesis
“Plasma membrane” Semi-permeable membrane found in all cells
“Radioimmunoassay” a scientific method used to test molecules that stimulates an immune response (for example, hormone levels in the blood)
“Vesicle” relatively small and enclosed compartment within a cell